SPOILERS AHEAD! READ AT YOUR OWN RISK!
- This article is about the Katsuragi who has been shown to the readers. For the original Katsuragi, see Katsuragi (original)
Post-war Katsuragi as he appears in the anime.
|Aliases||Colonel (official title) |
Shadow Man Kage no otoko ブラックシャドー
|Nationality||Barsburg (District 3)|
|Age||Estimated physical age 30-35|
|Height||Estimated 185 cm (6'1")|
|Relatives||Landkarte (ancestor) |
Unnamed Head of the Reuen Family (distant relative)
Other members of the Reuen Family
|Affiliation||The Barsburg Empire|
Barsburg Imperial Army
The Black Hawks
Seven Houses of God
Chief of Heaven (formerly)
Katsuragi is an antagonist in the 07-Ghost manga and anime series. Introduced as Colonel of the Barsburg Imperial Army, he was Chief of Staff Ayanami's direct subordinate and second-in-command of the Black Hawks.
His real name is unknown, but following his death as a human, he was reincarnated as a Ghost and acted under the alias of Landkarte. However, the Ghost's body contained a defect, and this defect corrupted Landkarte and turned him into the "black shadow". Manipulating both the Pope and the Emperor, he was directly responsible for the Raggs War, and later betrayed the other Ghosts for Verloren; killing them all with the sole exception of Karu, who escaped.
Infiltrating the Barsburg Armed Forces, he assumed the identity of one of Admiral Ogi's subordinates, the real Katsuragi, whom he found dying on the battlefield. He later used this to win Ayanami's favour and kill Ogi.
However, Katsuragi later betrayed the Black Hawks, as he believed Ayanami had become too attached to his (Ayanami's) subordinates. He engaged Frau and Teito Klein, but this proved his downfall, and he was purified by Teito. He ascended to Heaven after the Chief of Heaven forgave him, and after giving his Cursed Ticket to Teito.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Appearance
- 3 Personality
- 4 Relationships
- 5 Abilities and Attributes
- 6 History
- 7 Appearances
- 8 Manga synopsis
- 9 Quotes
- 10 Trivia
- 11 References
- 12 Site Navigation
Katsuragi's name may have come from the Japanese aircraft carrier during World War 2 of the same name. His name follows the trend of the founding members of the Black Hawks being named after battleships.
In Japanese, "katsura gi" can mean "Cercidiphyllum japonicum", a species of flowering tree native to China and Japan. Katsura wood is often used to make boards for "Go", a board game that requires complex practical strategy. The authors may have intended this as a reference to Katsuragi's cunning personality.
In the Japanese language, "katsu" can mean "win".
Katsuragi has a relatively normal looking appearance. Though his official height is not given, he is a tall man- being the third tallest Black Hawk in the manga (after Haruse and Hyuuga respectively) and the second tallest in the anime. Katsuragi's weight is unknown, though his build is slender.
His face is long and angular with a pointy chin and sharp jawline, and he has a small mouth with full lips. His nose is long and the bridge is slightly crooked. He has the darkest skin-tone out of the Black Hawks. Although appearing the eldest member of the Black Hawks, with the wrinkles around his eyes making him appear middle-aged, he is likely younger than both Ayanami and Hyuuga. It is possible that the surgery he performed, in order to pass for the real Katsuragi, has made him look much older than he really is.
One of Katsuragi's most distinguishable features is a small mole on the right side of his mouth. His hair is brown and cut relatively short with a few strands hanging over his face. His eyes are hooded, (possibly caused by the surgery) and a greyish-blue (greyish-purple in some images) colour. Due to their colour his pupils are very hard to distinguish. In the manga, he has dark hair and dark eyes.
As he is consumed by the shadow, he loses most of his resemblance to a human being.
His appearance before he performed surgery on himself was very different to how it is now. As Landkarte, he was of average height with a slender build. His face was much fuller, his skin was paler, and his jaw and nose were not crooked. He had long, light-colored hair that was cut short on the left side and kept in a ponytail on the right (before his death as a human, he kept his hair in two long ponytails of equal length). He also had large, light-coloured eyes with long eyelashes.
In the afterlife, Katsuragi's appearance is shown to have been reverted to that of Landkarte. Here, his physical appearance shows no signs of ageing, and he looks as young as he did during the Raggs War.
Being one of the Seven Ghosts, Katsuragi appears as a skeleton when in his true form.
When first introduced, he wears the standard Black Hawk uniform, which consists of a dark blue, ankle-length overcoat with a gold trim on the neck-guard, chest and sleeve cuffs. A small half mantle emblazoned with the Barsburg military insignia hangs off his left shoulder, and he wears golden shoulder boards on his right shoulder. Similar to the rest of the Black Hawks, Katsuragi wears black trousers, as well as white gloves and black army boots. He carries a broadsword that is identical to Ayanami's with a golden hilt and a handle that is part of the underside of the guard. He is usually seen carrying a book.
When acting as Landkarte in the past, he wore a knee-length, white-hooded robe with an elbow-length mantle. His trousers were a light colour, and he wore knee-length boots. He always wore the hood up. However, in the afterlife he wears the hood down.
Katsuragi initially appeared to be a calm and mild-mannered man. He enjoys reading, was always courteous when speaking to others (even to his enemies), and has said that he prefers desk work to fighting. Before his betrayal, he maintained a cheerful and light-hearted demeanour, smiling often and having an optimistic attitude towards most things.
His role within the Black Hawks can be described as "motherly". He has a love for cooking and eating, is often the one who cooks for the rest of the team, and frequently fusses about the health of his allies. He was repeatedly shown to be one of the most mature and reliable of the Black Hawks, and often calmed his more unconventional team mates down when they became hyperactive. Before his betrayal, he was often the voice of reason, and was well-liked among the Black Hawks.
However, Katsuragi had been hiding a much darker aspect of his personality. His dream is to achieve a perfect world; one without "love nor hate". He displays a cruel and plan-oriented streak- showing a lack of hesitation when eliminating former allies, and is capable of extreme ruthlessness and capriciousness. His own goals are given the ultimate priority, and as a result his loyalty is easily swayed when he feels his companions put these goals at risk. He both betrayed and murdered his fellow Ghosts, and later defected from the the Black Hawks out of fear his plans will be spoilt. However, if he likes the other party and believes they are not a threat, he will spare them.
A master of manipulation and deceit, he shows considerable skill in reading the motives of others and using it against them. His cunning nature allows him to deceive many people, strangers as well as people very familiar with his character, including renowned tactician, Ayanami. He is very aware of details, and tactically-minded. His long-term plans are well thought-out and demonstrate his patience, though he is also quick-thinking and is able to improvise when something goes awry.
At times, particularly during battle with former allies, his demeanour can shift without warning: he calmly explains his plan to Karu, but grins manically when Karu rejects it, and attacks him. His emotional state also fluctuates during his fight with 'Ayanami' (possessing Hyuuga), and changes from professing his love for Verloren to expressing outrage at Eve.
Despite the crimes he has committed, though, the goddess Eve believes that he is actually a kind person.
|“||The only person I love and respect is Ayanami-sama, him and him alone.||”|
—Katsuragi, speaking of Ayanami.
At the beginning of the series Katsuragi has a high degree of loyalty to Ayanami, similar to the rest of the Black Hawks. As the reincarnation of Verloren, Ayanami was vital to Katsuragi's plan to create a 'perfect' world, and even before they had met in person, Katsuragi expressed a fondness for Ayanami; his betrayal of his fellow Ghosts was in part motivated by his willingness to be close to Ayanami and Verloren.
His admiration for Verloren meant he held Ayanami in very high esteem, informing Ogi he (Ayanami) is 'the only one whom I love and respect'. Katsuragi is always respectful when talking with him, and appears to dislike those who are rude to him. Katsuragi also acted as Ayanami's Begleiter, despite not fully recognized by Ayanami emotionally.
He was devoted to serving Ayanami, and valued his welfare above his own. His devotion was shown as he was willing to disfigure himself in order to help Ayanami achieve his goals. He was also very concerned with Ayanami's well-being, as shown when he became worried when he noticed Ayanami looked ill, and he made some nutritious, digestible jelly with Kuroyuri for Ayanami to welcome him back to the Black Hawks.
Katsuragi is also shown to take pride in working for Ayanami, and becomes pleased whenever Ayanami compliments his work. He compliments Ayanami fairly frequently, as he has said that Ayanami's Zaiphon is spectacular, and that he has a beautiful face. In regards to work, they get on rather well, possibly as their personalities are very similar, with both being quiet, polite, calm, and prepared.
|“||No Verloren, I sincerely respect you from the bottom of my heart. It's just I... want to see the perfect world that you were supposed to build. However, it is impossible for the current you. You've grown far too close to these humans.||”|
—Katsuragi, explaining why he thinks Ayanami is unfit to be Verloren.
However, later in the series Katsuragi's opinion on Ayanami began to change. His love for Ayanami was only there when Ayanami was an asset to him, and as Ayanami grew more attached to his subordinates, the more Katsuragi saw him as unfit to become Verloren. Katsuragi feared this emotion would jeopardise his dream of a perfect world with neither "love nor hate", and at some point started to deceive the Black Hawks. Katsuragi planned to prevent the revived Verloren from reuniting with Eve, though it remains unknown whether he planned to kill Ayanami.
|“||When you look at me. I feel... this extremely intolerable feeling as if I'm having mud rubbed right into my soul.||”|
—Katsuragi, on Ogi
'Katsuragi' had been a subordinate of Ogi's for more than 10 years. At first Katsuragi appeared to be working with Ogi in an attempt to usurp Ayanami, but it is later revealed that Katsuragi was an agent of Ayanami's and had been posing as the real Katsuragi (after performing re-constructive surgery on himself in order to look more like the real Katsuragi) who he found dying on the battlefield ten years ago.
He first appeared to love and admire Ogi in order to avoid suspicion, but in reality he hated Ogi, commenting that Ogi's eyes were pathetic and with them he (Ogi) betrayed and looked down on others.
Colleagues and other members of the military
|“||So that means there's no need to pretend any more.||”|
—Katsuragi, just before he attacks Hyuuga.
Katsuragi does not interact much with Hyuuga, but there is some evidence to suggest he may not like Hyuuga, even before his betrayal. This may be because Katsuragi is very reserved and polite, while Hyuuga is cheeky and rebellious, particularly towards Ayanami- whom Katsuragi held in high esteem.
After Katsuragi's change in goals, he displayed extreme animosity towards him. Katsuragi saw Hyuuga as an object to his plan, and attacks and tries to kill him- almost succeeding. Katsuragi apparently felt no remorse for what he has done, as he stood over Hyuuga and said mockingly: 'For you to die in vain, it's so unlike you.'
|“||Konatsu-kun, people of keen perception like you, I don't dislike.. But forgive me.||”|
—Katsuragi, on Konatsu
Before Katsuragi's betrayal, he and Konatsu had a good relationship. Katsuragi appeared to care for Konatsu and would take care of him when it was within his power. During a fight with Castor, Katsuragi used his teletransportation abilities, which put him at serious risk of revealing his identity as Landkarte, in order to save Konatsu from a would-be fatal attack.
Although an experienced and cautious spy by nature, he has at times let his guard down when in Konatsu's presence. As a Ghost, Katsuragi has a keen eye for souls, and his liking for Konatsu may be due to his (Konatsu's) "pure" soul.
|“||I sincerely respect you from the bottom of my heart.||”|
—Katsuragi, on Verloren.
Katsuragi is fanatical about Verloren. His betrayal and murder of the other Ghosts was so he could become affiliated with Verloren. His love for Verloren was because Verloren had the power to create a perfect world by eliminating both love and hate.
|“||If only you hadn't met the Chief of Heaven's daughter... No... Like hell I will let you meet her again!||”|
—Katsuragi, on Verloren's relationship with Eve.
Katsuragi strongly disliked Eve, believing her to be the reason Verloren become 'imperfect'. As a result of this, he holds a grudge against her, and tries to prevent her and Verloren from reuniting.
After he was purified by Teito and guided out of the Ninth Circle of Hell by Eve, his opinion of her seems to change for the better.
Mikhail and Raphael helped to seal Verloren's true body and memories through the Eyes of Mikhail and Raphael respectively, hindering Katsuragi's plans. Thus, he presumably hates the archangels, a sentiment which is probably mutual since Katsuragi has hurt both archangels' masters (Teito and Ouka). Mikhail and Raphael may have been among the inhabitants of Heaven whom the Chief of Heaven spoke to about Verloren's 'defect'.
Despite the destruction Katsuragi had caused, the Chief forgave him, though according to Karu, the Chief intended to give Katsuragi a "severe scolding".
As the Ghosts of Ea and Landkarte, Karu and Katsuragi were friends. As they were the two youngest members of the previous generation of Ghosts, Katsuragi interacted with Karu the most. Katsuragi seemed to like Karu very much, as he visited him frequently and always brought treats for them to share.
However when Katsuragi felt his 'allies' were interfering with his plans, he severed all ties with the Ghosts, and attempted to murder Karu. Throughout the ten years after Landkarte's betrayal, both Karu and Katsuragi remained in the military- aware of each other's existence.
Guido: It seems they had a good relationship. When Landkarte was upset about purified souls regressing back to their evil ways, Zehel told Landkarte to give him a list of those who "became dark again" and he would help. Landkarte also often escorted Zehel using his teleporting abilities.
Katsuragi is the current Ghost Landkarte and he helps the 07-Ghosts oppose Verloren by sealing Pandora's Box, Verloren's true body, through the Eye of Mikhail and the Eye of Raphael .
Katsuragi does not care for Teito , betrayed his duties and tried to harm Teito . He later tried to force Teito to open Pandora's Box twice, which endangered his life each time. However , Katsuragi may have felt remorse for his actions and want to atone for what he had done .
Despite being enemies , Teito cares for Katsuragi to some extent , as shown in Kapitel 92 , Teito , seeing that Landkarte's heart is still pure despite the darkness corrupting the rest of his body, holds on to it (the heart) and purifies Landkarte , and later in Kapitel 93 , Teito wonders out loud if Landkarte's soul can be returned to the Chief of Heaven's side so that Landkarte can atone for his sins .
Later , in Kapitel 94 , he ascended to Heaven after the Chief of Heaven forgave him, and after giving his Cursed Ticket to Teito. Karu/Ea mentioned that Landkarte will get a 'severe scolding' for his crimes from the Chief.
Katsuragi does not care for the Princess, viewing her as an obstacle (as it is her job to seal Verloren's memories and this interferes with his plan) that needs to be removed, and he personally tried to kill her at her Groom Choosing ball.
Abilities and Attributes
Due to being a Ghost, Katsuragi is able to recover for injuries that would kill a normal human.
Katsuragi is able to possess others and use their bodies as hosts or vessels, resulting in drastic changes in his vessels' personalities, to the extent that they lose sight of their original intentions and goals.
Like most of the Black Hawks, Katsuragi has a Zaiphon and is extremely proficient at using it, though he has not been seen using it in the anime.
Attacking: Katsuragi has been shown to have an attacking Zaiphon, and he uses his sword to manipulate his attacks, similar to how those in the Church use a bascule. He is able to generate a wave of energy upon a sword swing. Katsuragi is able to do this many times in a row and upon close inspection, he seems to be able to generate two waves upon a single swing in the anime.
As the Ghost Landkarte, Katsuragi is the "extinguishing spirit": able to move to any coordinates on Earth (possibly limited to the places he has been to before) and any person he wishes to go to as long as he knows a soul's number, meaning his 'prey' can never escape from him unless he/she changed his/her soul number.
Keeping a soul: He can keep a soul in his custody for at least 10 years (manga chapter 88). The maximum numbers of souls he can keep is unknown.
He appears to be a highly skilled and dangerous fighter, able to fight on par with Lance (who was a skilled fighter himself) and to see through Castor (who was a well-trained assassin)'s move.
In the past, he was swift enough to decapitate three Ghosts from behind with a single sway of his scythe. His 'teletransportation' means he is able to outmanoeuvre Hyuuga, who was believed to be the fastest Hawk second only to Ayanami and eventually bested him. However, while his combat abillities and speed are immense, he still does not seem to be skilled enough to truly rival Ayanami in one-on-one combat, as Ayanami expressed confidence he can defeat Katsurugi should he take control of Hyugga's body.
|“||I was worshipped by a lot of people. But that was just for appearance's sake. The words escaping from their prayers: "hurry up and die so I can be saved!" followed me around and it was so disgusting!||”|
—Katsuragi, reflecting on his sacrifice.
Death and reincarnation
When the District was plagued with floods that caused the deaths of many, the Krat Family prophesied the rivers could be appeased with a "human sacrifice" for each river. Hearing this, the people of the District revolted: fearing they would lose their children while the upper classes would suffer no such loss. To set an example and show solidarity with the people, the Reuen God House decided to make the first sacrifice: a member of their own God House. However, they protected themselves by selecting one of the most distantly related family members, and 'Katsuragi' was chosen.
|“||Beautiful... In a world where I'd been freed from any kinds of feelings- What a perfect world.||”|
—Katsuragi's thoughts as he drowns, Kapitel 91.
Katsuragi was briefly worshipped as a saviour, but grew to hate the selfishness of those praying to him. At the sacrifice, as he sank deeper the feelings of hatred disappeared, and Katsuragi found the lack of feeling "beautiful". After he drowned, he was reincarnated as the Ghost Landkarte.
Katsuragi acted as Landkarte: purifying tainted souls. He grew close with fellow Ghost Ea, and the two would often spend a lot of time together. While carrying out his Ghost duties, Katsuragi adopted an optimistic view on redemption, refusing to let Guido punish the souls that regressed back to their evil ways after he purified them. He sought to eliminate hatred from the world, but soon realised that when there is love, there will always be hatred.
However, the body of Landkarte contained a 'defect' that was carried over from Verloren during Landkarte's creation, and over time, Katsuragi became more and more corrupted. His views on purity turned fanatical, and in order to achieve his dream of a "perfect world": one without love or hate, he plotted to revive the Death God Verloren- the very being the Ghosts had been created to stop.
The Pope and the Emperor
Using his teletransportation to move swiftly between districts, Katsuragi built a repertoire with both the Pope and the Emperor. He became a consultant of the Pope, and used his (the Pope's) dream of world peace to convince him releasing Verloren could make this dream come true. He also became the Emperor's military advisor, and when Kreuz threatened to sabotage his plan by escaping with Pandora's Box, made use of the Emperor's love for Millea to tempt Wolfram to invade Raggs. This triggered the Raggs War.
During the Raggs War
- Main article: Raggs War
During the war, Katsuragi continued to deceive the other Ghosts.
When Fea Kreuz took Pandora's Box, Katsuragi acted as his guide to the Seven Houses of God on their way to The Land of Seele. He killed Guido (who acted as Zehel) first, though whether this was because Guido discovered his plan, or just as a precaution is unknown.
He then killed three of the six remaining Ghosts, after his plan was uncovered by them, to prevent them from warning Kreuz. Landkarte swung his scythe and decapitated Raggs War Fest, Raggs War Profe and Raggs War Relikt, but Karu, who was shorter than them, was instead sliced across the eyes- blinding him but not killing him. Karu changed his soul number and fled.
It is likely that Landkarte played a significant role in Vertrag being devoured by Ayanami/Verloren, as he may have lead Kreuz and Tiashe to Ayanami/Verloren.
A change of identity
Recognising Ogi as a man whom "Ayanami-sama finds an eyesore", Landkarte surgically modified his own face to resemble the real Katsuragi, stole his identity, and from then on was known as Katsuragi.
|This character has made at least one appearance where they are the focus of a shot.|
|This character has made at least one background appearance.|
|This character makes no appearance, but is mentioned by name or title.|
|This character makes no appearance, and is not mentioned by name or title|
A meeting about the Eye
|“||It is an honour to simply be of use to you.||”|
—Katsuragi, to Ayanami.
He is seen standing behind Ayanami during the meeting, reading a book and he later says how he looks forward to meeting Teito.
After the meeting he is later seen delivering a report to Ayanami where he reminds him of his schedule. Upon Ayanami showing gratitude, Katsuragi simply replies that his words flatter him and that he is happy to be of service to him.
A meeting about Antwort
Katsuragi later appears in a meeting with Ayanami about the war with Antwort.
Discovery of the Eye of Mikhail
Katsuragi, unlike the other Black Hawks, is not present on the Ribidzile travelling to Antwort but instead appears in another meeting concerning Ayanami's loss of two imperial fleet ships. Katsuragi does not react when some of the generals demand Ayanami's execution, but after Field Marshal Wakaba Oak silences them and asks about Ayanami's condition, he replies that the Chief of Staff is unharmed. Their attention is then drawn to the Eye of God left in the mountains of District 7- it being proof the Eye of Mikhail was present at the attack.
|“||Please leave it to me.||”|
—Katsuragi, plotting to overthrow Ayanami with Ogi.
Once the meeting has ended, Katsuragi speaks with Ogi, who had placed him in the Black Hawks as a spy to watch Ayanami. Ogi is frustrated that Ayanami had neglected to take Katsuragi on the trip to Antwort- demonstrating a lack of trust on Ayanami's part, but together with Ogi, Katsuragi plots an attack against the Chief of Staff.
Katsuragi (though unrecognisable) appeared when Lance confronted the Pope. While Lance was questioning the Pope, he (the Pope) became hysterical and protested that what he had done (making Teito the container of Pandora's Box) had been against his will.
Later in the series, Katsuragi continues to manipulate Emperor Wolfram Eifeler Barsburg, and is seen standing behind the Emperor, appearing as a black shadow or shadow man. The Emperor tells his royal attendants that the shadow man is his trusted advisor, and that thanks to him (shadow man), the Raggs War had a good outcome for Barsburg. However, when Teito pointed the light of the Eye of Mikhail at him, Emperor Wolfram regained his conscience, and it was revealed that the shadow man had influenced him into starting the Raggs War so that his (Wolfram's) love, Millea Klein, could be brought to Barsburg.
It was eventually revealed that the shadow man had been acting as Landkarte. As of Kapitel 91, he headed towards Teito, presumably with the aim of opening Pandora's Box. Fortunately for Teito, Frau rescued him (Teito) in time. Frau and Teito then fought against Landkarte and Teito purified Landkarte's soul.
- 'People are strongest when they have nothing to lose.' (anime episode 24)
- 'This is my home-made health wine. From today onwards, drink this at breakfast, at lunch and at dinner. As a sanbou, you must take care of your own health.' 
- '(laugh) Oh, haha, no, no. Don't thank me. At the end of the day, I am your vice-Begleiter. Please let me handle matters of this sort (taking care of you).' 
- 'I only have one wish. If I possess your power, I can turn the world into something that is perfect..! '
- 'Here, the Eye you desire. Although I don't look like one, actually I am a man of honor.' (to the dead Ogi when he put the Eye of Mikhail in Ogi's hand)
- 'If I can't erase either love or hate, I'll just erase both of them. By doing so, I'm sure peace will be brought upon this world. Just like, welcoming death at the eternal bottom of the sea where lights will never reach... Because unlike Verloren, I don't have love or hate inside me. I can paint this world with pure darkness.' (to Karu in Kapitel 88)
- 'No destination (after death) for my soul? Not even the World for the Dead? Not even Hell? I see... as I am a defective item that infects anyone upon contact... from the human world, from Heaven... the best method is to quarantine me.'(to Karu, manga chapter 91)
- 'I do not wish for my own redemption.'  (to Ea before Ea dies, manga chapter 91)
- While his real first name remains unknown, it is presumed that his family name was Reuen when he was human.
- He is older than Karu, but only slightly.
- He is the only Ghost known to have been worshipped as a god even before dying as a human.
- Before his corruption, Landkarte's love of sweets and energetic nature meant his personality was very similar to that of fellow Black Hawk, Hyuuga. Strangely, despite this, Katsuragi did not like Hyuuga, and later tried to kill him.
- It seems that he is interested in the hawkzile race, as he deliberately recorded it.
- He is good at assessing the prices of artwork.
- In his uniform, he has a bottle of a type of alcohol which enhances health and is made by himself. Upon knowing that Ayanami hasn't eaten anything since the evening before, he offers it to Ayanami and tells him to drink it thrice a day, but Ayanami complains and says a soldier shouldn't hide such things in his uniform.
- He thinks that Ayanami has a beautiful face.
- He thinks that Ayanami's zaiphon used for punishment is spectacular.
- In the 8th Limited Animate DVD, there is a mini-drama which features Katsuragi and Konatsu, titled "kokoro no izumi" (literal translation "heart spring/fountain"). In the drama, they asked "whether the chicken or the egg came first" and talked about altruism.
- It seems that he likes a type of Japanese food called tsukemono, as the wish note he puts in his Christmas stocking is "the best tsukemono in the world".
- It is possible that Katsuragi is also interested in gardening, as the wish he writes and hangs on the Christmas tree in Ayanami's room is "(To have) a vegetable garden".
- There is also a city called Katsuragi in Japan.